is Googleese speech for
www.env.gov.bc.ca/eemp/resources/pdf/double_hull_issue.pdfFile Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - Quick View
The double hull issue and oil spill risk on the Pacific west coast. Includes bibliographical references: p. ISBN 0-7726-2472-0. 1. Tankers – Safety measures. 2
Its October 1995, seventeen years away from 2012
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.....In the wake of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill disaster, a multitude of government studies, workshops and independent reviews recommended double hulls as the single most effective technology to prevent many future oil spills from tankers. Most ship classification societies and legislative bodies accept that total replacement of all existing tankers with double-hulled vessels will result in a 50% reduction in the total amount of oil spilt from tanker casualties.
It is important to realize that double hulled tankers do not mean the end of oil spills; there will always be exceptional accidents such as fires and explosions which result in the loss of oil. Since double hull construction is a design spill prevention measure (not an operational measure), it will not reduce the likelihood of a vessel accident (collision or grounding). Nevertheless, double hulls will result in an appreciable reduction in risk, simply by having a second hull within a hull.
Where are we after years of deliberations about the urgent need to protect our pristine environment?
When will we realize the benefits of new tanker designs? Some 250 million barrels of crude oil and refined petroleum products are moved each year by tankers and barges in Puget Sound, the Juan de Fuca Strait, and British Columbia coastal waterways.
Of this total, over 200 million barrels, or approximately 80% of the total, is still carried in single-hulled vessels.
In essence, “single hull” means that in the event of a collision or grounding there is a single layer of steel, 20 - 35 mm, or about an inch thick, separating the oil cargo and the marine environment. SNIP
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The map shows the main routes of tankers travelling down the west coast and into the Strait of Georgia/Puget Sound area.
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Tankers, single hull and double hull, resting smack dab on the top of British Columbia's Ripple Rock, past tense, now.
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The Province of British Columbia’s Report to the Premier on Oil Transportation and Oil Spills, November 1989 commonly referred to as the “David Anderson Report”, 19 recommended: “ In the event of the Secretary of Transportation (United States) or the National Academy of Sciences (United States) reporting in favour of double bottoms, greater use of ballast sides, or reduced tank sizes for tankers or tank barges, Canada serve notice that within four years such design features will be required for tankers and tank barges calling at Canadian ports”. (Recommendation #20). The National Research Council in Washington recommended in favour of such designs in 1991.
NOTE..... regarding David Anderson, he's the guy who came out this past week, to comment on the current BC Premier's "take" on what's good For BC. Christy Clark is "missing the point".
Page 39 of 54 (This next 1995 statistic should be taken with a very large grain of SALT)
Future tanker traffic out of Vancouver (primarily Westridge Terminals) is expected to be much less than projected four years ago. Only three vessels sailed in 1994, down from the 12 to 14 loads more typical of the past few years. The trend is towards more “specialty shipments” from Vancouver which could lead to between 6 and 10 tank vessels per year calling to pick-up such cargoes as gas field condensate and synthetic crude. These cargoes pose less risk to the marine environment than the more persistent crude oils.
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Increasing amounts of Alberta crude oil are being moved via pipeline from British Columbia to Washington State. As of November 1994, Canadian crude imports were meeting approximately 20% of the Puget Sound daily refining needs, up from around 1% five years ago. This supply situation is highly desirable from and environmental standpoint as it reduces the overall risk of a marine spill. The pipeline supply is very dependent on pricing and market pressures from other geographic areas.
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The following organizations provided invaluable assistance and recent data needed to develop this report: International Maritime Organization, London, England; International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Limited, London, England; the United States Coast Guard, Washington, D.C.; Trans Mountain Pipelines Limited, Vancouver, B.C.; Seaspan Ltd., Vancouver, B.C.; Washington State Office of Marine Safety, Olympia, Washington; Canadian Coast Guard, Ottawa, Ontario; and British Petroleum, Port of Valdez, Alaska.
This report was produced by DF Dickins Associates Ltd., Salt Spring Island, British Columbia with the assistance of Ann Godon who prepared Part 2 dealing with Tanker Design.