Enbridge GeoHazard List is longer, much longer in detail than Kinder Morgan. Has KM skimped on the details and then claiming immunity .... for reasons of security? Actually KM only provides the Ten Highest GeoHazards, their number may be much higher than Enbridge's 363 Geohazards.
American Society of Mechanincal Engineers (ASME):
Pipeline Integrity Analyses for Construction in Mountainous Areas
Exacerbated by complex routing and profile, pipelines constructed in mountainous areas are at risk to develop significant uplift in the soil at bend locations during hydrostatic testing and initial operating cycles. If such uplift displacement accumulates during subsequent operating cycles, a phenomenon known as ratcheting, the pipe may eventually fail by upheaval buckling.