Friday, July 3, 2015

Canadian Pacific Railway Explorations and Surveys: Captain George Vancouver by the day 1792, 1793

This weekend's political plot: Tracing Captain George Vancouver's 1792 route into Google Earth

Canadian Pacific Railway Explorations and Surveys up to Jan, 1874 Sanford Fleming, Engineer and Chief
Engineer & Chief.
1 league = 3.45233834 miles

Canadian Pacific Railway Exploration and Surveys

Page 263 to 281 of 314 pages

Appendix N.

Extracts from the Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean in 1792 and 1793, by Captain George Vancouver, submitted fo the purpose of explaining the remarkable character of the Coast of British Columbia between latitude 51 degrees and 54 degrees - For a copy of Vancouver's Chart, see sheet No. 16.

June 27th, 1792. - Here the Chatham anchored, and Mr. Broughton pursued its eastern coast in his boat along the continental shore, leaving a branch leading to the northward, near the entrance of which are two islands and some rocks.  This arm of the sea continued a little to the northward of east, 6 leagues, to the latitude of 50 degrees 45 minutes, where its width increased to near a league, taking an irregular northerly direction to its final termination in latitude 51 degrees 1 minute, longitude 234 degrees 13 minutes. To this, after Capt. Knight of the Navy, Mr. Broughton gave the name of KNIGHT'S CANAL.  The shores of it, like most of those lately surveyed, are formed by high stupendous mountains rising almost perpendicularly from the water's edge.  The dissolving snow on the their summits produced many cataracts that fell with great impetuosity down their rugged, barren sides.  The fresh water that thus descended gave a pale white hue to the Canal, rendering its contents entirely fresh at the head, and drinkable for twenty miles below it.  This dreary region was not, however, destitute of inhabitants, as a village was discovered a few miles from its upper extremity, which seemed constructed like that described in Desolation-Sound for defense; the inhabitants were civil and friendly.

July 28th, - We had not been long under weigh before we were joined by the Chatham, and steered to the northward for the channel leading to Deep Sea Bluff, which I called FIFE'S PASSAGE.  AS we crossed the main arm the squally hazy weather permitted our seeing, but very imperfectly, the several islands and rocks that it contains.  About two o'clock in the afternoon we entered Fife's Passage, and found its eastern point (named by me, after Captain Duff of the Royal Navy, POINT DUFF), situate in latitude 50 degrees 48 minutes, longitude 233 degrees 10 minutes.  A small rocky islet lies off Point Duff covered in shrubs; and off the west point of this passage, named POINT GORDON, bearing N 83 degrees W. from Point Duff, are several white flat barren rocks lying at a little distance from the shore.  Although the tide appeared to be in our favour, we made so little progress in this inlet, that we were compelled to anchor at five in the afternoon not more than two miles within the entrance in twenty fathoms water, on the northern shore, near some small rocky islets.  The shores that now surrounded us were not very high, composed of rugged rocks, steep to the Sea, in the chasms and chinks of which a great number of stunted or dwarf pine trees were produced. *  *  *   *   *   *

Page  264

July 31st, - From Deep Sea Bluff, the shore of the main, across this small opening, took a direction N. 50 W. for about four miles; then extended N.N.E., about a league to a point, where the arm took a more easterly course, passing an island and several rocky islets, forming passages for boats only; whilst, to the westward of the island, the main channel was a mile in width, and not doubt entertained of our finding a greater depth of water than we required for the vessel.

We pursued the examination of this arm to its head in latitude 51 degrees longitude 233 degrees 46 minutes; when it terminated in a similar way to the many before described.  Its shores, about a mile apart, were composed of high, steep craggy mountains, whose summits were capped with snow; the lower cliffs though apparently destitute of soil, produced many pine trees, that seemed to draw all their nourishment out of the solid rock.  The water, near four leagues from its upper end, was of a very light chalky colour, and nearly fresh.  From its shores two small branches extended, one winding about four miles to the S. E. and S. W., the other about a league to the N. N. W.

August 1. - We kept the continental shore on board through a very intricate narrow branch that took a direction E. by N. for near two leagues, and then terminated as usual, at the base of a remarkable mountain, conspicuous for its irregular form, and its elevation above the rest of the hills in its neighbourhood.   This I have distinguished in my char by the name of MOUNT STEPHEN, in honour of Sir Philip Stephens of the Admiralty. It is situated in latitude 51 degrees 1 minute, longitude 233 degrees 20 minutes, (51 1' S; 233 20' W) and may serve as an excellent guide to the entrance of the various channel with which this country abounds.
*    *    *    *   *

Green bar the main channel was a mile in width

The narrow passage by which we had entered, is a channel admissible for boats only; and thence by foot of Mount Stephens, was merely a chasm in the mountains, caused, probably, by some violent efforts of nature.  This idea originated in its differing materially in one particular from all the canals we had hitherto examined; namely, in its having regular soundings, not exceeding the depth of 13 fathoms, although its shores, like all those of the bottomless canals, were formed by perpendicular cliffs, from their snowy summits to the water's edge.  The stupendous mountains on each side of this narrow chasm, prevented a due circulation of air below, by excluding the rays of the sun; whilst the exhalations from the surface of the water and humid shores of the canal, wanting rarefication, were in a great measure, detained, like steam in a condensed state; the evaporation thus produced a degree of cold and chillness which rendered our night's lodging very unpleasant.

August 5th, -   By this expedition, the continental shore was traced to the western-most land in sight.  We had now only to proceed along it, as soon as the wind and weather would permit our moving.  This, however, a thick fog and a calm prevented, until Sunday afternoon, when a light breeze between S. W. and West, enabled us, by sunset, to advance about two leagues to the westward of Point Boyles, which, by compass, bore from us S. 85 W.  *    *    *    *   *

Snipped for now

Need to continue reading; continue plotting;

June 7th, 1792 and more, awaits

Google Search Criteria:  Extracts from the Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean in 1792 and 1793, by Captain George Vancouver

Google Search Criteria: Here the Chatham anchored, and Mr. Broughton pursued its eastern coast in his boat along the continental shore

1 comment:

scotty on denman said...

As I understand it, Vancouver's assessment of the West Coast's timber value was coloured by nautical needs---especially masts---and its commercial potential using the technology of the day (ground-lead): It was too big to be of any use. For many years afterwards, western white pine was the most sought after species, loggers going to great lengths to drag the relatively tall and slender species out from between "useless" Douglas firs, red cedars, and Sitka spruces.